CHRISTOPHER AND COLUMBUS (illustrated)

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Celebrate Columbus Day with Chris Columbus Films

The Amerindians Columbus encounters here appear even more awe-struck than their indigenous predecessors in the De Bry engraving. The Indians in the foreground were probably given a darker complexion in order to put the encounter behind them in a fuller light, but the fact that skin colour became a yardstick to measure civility in the eighteenth century could have been an additional incentive. Finally, and intriguingly, even though Picart's agenda was one of religious toleration, the raising of the cross retained its place in the design. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, the Amsterdam draughtsman Reinier Vinkeles was another artist to use the template Theodore de Bry had created almost two centuries earlier.

Publisher Description

In , Vinkeles made an etching of Columbus' arrival in the New World that discarded Picart's addition of additional Spaniards, and reinstated Columbus as the singular hero of the expedition, much like De Bry had done before him pictured below. The sword still conveyed the reassuring message that the Europeans were in control, despite the turbulent developments in North America immediately prior to Vinkeles' composition. The perspective of Vinkeles' image is identical to that of De Bry, with ships in the distant background and sloops with additional colonists approaching the shore.

Christopher Columbus

Behind Columbus, the cross is planted in a way that faithfully resembles the De Bry composition, watched with curious interest by the Native Americans who display the similar mixture of fear and respect that characterized De Bry's naked Indians. Vinkeles, like Picart before him, did not depict the giving of New World gold and silver, but instead appears to have embellished the image by adding a crowned head among the Amerindians with arguably the most fearful complexion of the entire group. Once again, although this time deliberately, the skin colour of the Amerindians has been modified to underline the racial differences between both groups.

Reinier Vinkeles' etching depicting Columbus' landing - Source. The nineteenth and twentienth centuries produced many more designs that were directly or indirectly derived from the De Bry engraving, as anyone who does a Google search on 'Columbus' and '' can establish. They are all different, but very few of them are new. All insist on the juxtapositions between technology and handicraft, civility and innocence, religion and ignorance, and, most importantly, power and dependence.

The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia

Some of these 'modern' representations of the arrival of the first European fleet in America are bound to make most twenty-first century viewers cringe, especially when we contemplate that some of them were and still are? Theodore de Bry's design already harbours these uncomfortable notions of an irreversible shift in power. One could argue that it assisted in facilitating the demographic and humanitarian disaster that followed.

That, of course, is something historians will never be able to ascertain. Perhaps, if nothing else, at least this wonderful engraving can help us to reflect on how detrimental the routine of simple ethnographic copying-and-pasting can be.

This beautifully illustrated book reproduces in full the famous and rarely seen British Museum collection of drawings and watercolors made by John White, who in accompanied a group of English settlers sent by Sir Walter Raleigh to found a colony on Roanoke Island, North Carolina. This book deals with the De Bry collection of voyages, one of the most monumental publications of Early Modern Europe. It analyzes the textual and iconographic changes the De Bry publishing family made to travel accounts describing Asia, Africa and the New World.

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9 reasons Christopher Columbus was a murderer, tyrant, and scoundrel

Michiel van Groesen is Lecturer in Early Modern History at the University of Amsterdam, where he specializes in early modern Atlantic history and the history of news. Explore our selection of fine art prints, all custom made to the highest standards, framed or unframed, and shipped to your door.


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Search The Public Domain Review. Columbus kept a journal on his history making voyage to the Americas, and in addition to describing the long voyage, his journal marked the first contact between the Europeans and Native Americans. From the October 12, entry in his journal he wrote of them, "Many of the men I have seen have scars on their bodies, and when I made signs to them to find out how this happened, they indicated that people from other nearby islands come to San Salvador to capture them; they defend themselves the best they can.

9 reasons Christopher Columbus was a murderer, tyrant, and scoundrel - Vox

I believe that people from the mainland come here to take them as slaves. They ought to make good and skilled servants, for they repeat very quickly whatever we say to them. Payment Methods accepted by seller. Save for Later. About this Item Small folio, 7 p. A delightful example of the renowned Czech illustrator and paper engineer Vojtech Kubasta.


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  • Bound inside is the short story How Columbus Discovered America. The back cover contains a map of the world illustrating Columbus' First Voyage.